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  • Emotions and their impact on the decision-making process in sport. Test development to investigate the different effects of negative emotions on tactical decisions in individual sport tennis for hearing impaired and hearing people

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Produktart: Buch
Verlag: Bachelor + Master Publishing
Erscheinungsdatum: 11.2022
AuflagenNr.: 1
Seiten: 38
Sprache: Englisch
Einband: Paperback

Inhalt

Es ist eine alltägliche Erfahrung, dass Gefühle unser Handeln beeinflussen. Die meisten Menschen gehen von einer einfachen Beziehung aus: Positive Gefühle sind förderlich, negative Gefühle behindern das menschliche Erleben, Handeln und die Leistung. Die ersten Überlegungen für die vorliegende Studie wurden durch die Beobachtung inspiriert, dass im Leistungssport taktische Entscheidungen mitunter von Emotionen geleitet werden. Emotionen enthalten Informationen. Angst zum Beispiel informiert über den Zustand des Organismus und über die Situation. Antizipation ist eine Information im Sinne einer Vorhersage. Bei der Planung und Ausführung von Handlungen kann die Verarbeitung von Informationen nützlich, überflüssig oder sogar störend sein, z.B. im Sinne einer Falschmeldung. Gefühle haben einen informativen Charakter die durchgeführten Untersuchungen gehen von diesem Ansatz aus. In den Untersuchungen werden Gefühle grundsätzlich als unabhängige Variable betrachtet, während die sportliche Leistung als abhängige Variable betrachtet wird. Die Handlungen stellen die Prozessvariablen dar diese werden auf der Grundlage der Analyse des Ausgangszustandes und des Ziels geplant und gesteuert. Emotionen haben hier ihre Funktion als Information. Aufgrund der überregionalen Relevanz des Themas wurde die Studie auf Englisch verfasst.

Leseprobe

Text sample: Chapter 3 Research question: Thus, the present paper is dedicated to answering the following research question. How does the effect of negative emotions on tactical decisions differ between hearing impaired and hearing people in individual sports? It is to be expected that if the topic described above about the changed development in the area of decisions and emotional development is carried out, that in the area of emotion processing (negative emotions stress and anxiety) there will be a deviating effect in the area of tactical action decisions. The starting point for this is that, as already mentioned in the introduction, there is a change in information processing in the group of hearing impaired people, as well as a change in cognitive development. In addition, it can be expected that the neurobiological examination will reveal altered brain activity in the group of hearing impaired people. 3.1, Why this investigation?: Emotions can influence all sub-processes of action control, such as the processes that motivate action, the preparation of behavior, the consideration of alternative actions and finally the execution of the action itself. Among the emotionally psychologically relevant contributions of the brain, the prefrontal networks and the evaluation of the reward or punishment value of the presented stimuli are: the control of the approach and withdrawal behavior, the socio-emotional information processing, the emotional modulation of decision making, as well as inhibitory influences when switching to changed reward conditions, including the deletion of no longer intensified reactions. In this way, emotions do not only promote adaptive, situation- appropriate action, but can also be modulated or regulated by the central executive. Based on these aspects, it is worthwhile to examine the differences between hearing impaired and hearing people. The ToM or advanced Theory of Mind (aToM) is the starting point for this, as it deals with the development of emotion processing. It became clear that hearing impaired people have a different development in the processing between emotions and actions (see above). The resulting change in comparison to hearing people prompts the development of the research question as a hypothesis. It is also supported by the fact that the development of executive functions is closely linked to the development of the prefrontal cortex and that this development is altered in hearing impaired people (see above). 3.1.1 State of research on hearing people: In this section, I would like to present the current state of research in the field of action decisions in relation to anxiety and stress in hearing people. I will also look at research into the effects of acute training on psychological stress. The study by Hanin et al. (2016), with the working title Emotion - centered and action-centered coping in elite sport: Task execution design approach , investigated the extent to which emotions affect the actions of professional athletes. Hanin et al. were interested in the circumstances under which the athletes underperformed. The following points provided the framework: - Constrains-led competition environment, - Appraisals, - Decision making, - Emergent performance patterns. Hanin et al. used Task Execution Design (TED) to illustrate these relationships. Important organic functions include voltage, emotions, perception, decision making und memory (Hanin et al. 2016, S. 568). These functions are represented in the TED frame under subheading of competition constraints (task-environmental-personal), appraisals (awareness, acceptance, adaption), decision making (intensions - want, can, actions), and outcomes (Hanin et al. 2016, S.568). Hanin et al. found that emotions constraints are feeling states affecting performance in a desire or undesired way. Furthermore, there was a connection between idiosyncratic emotion labels (nervous, upset, angry, excited) and action tendencies, which became clear when within-individual experiences are contrasted across successful and unsuccessful competitions (Hanin et al., p 568). At this point emotion-centered coping plays an important role if the athlete is aware of the given situation, accepts it as reality and has successful competition experiences with it (Hanin et al., p.571). However, this circumstance leads to the fact that these situations trigger the dysfunctional emotions such as fear, tension and low self-confidence that lead to a reduction in performance (Hanin et al., p.571). In another study by Vaughan et al. (2019), the impact of sports expertise and trait emotional intelligence (TEI) in poker players for the decision to act. The aim was to investigate whether the respective contribution of sports expertise and TEI to the decision-making process in a gambling task is decisive (Vaughan et al., S.229). In general, the results supported predictions indicating superior decision-making and TEI of elite athletes. Moreover, The Cambridge Gambling task (CGT) is a general measure of decision-making supporting the theory of cognitive skill transfer. (Vaughan et al., S.229). Furthermore, elite athletes’ decision-making may be a practice effect from being part of an elite sports and to have the opportunity to practice quick decisions under pressure (Vaughan et al., S.229). These findings also suggest that individuals with higher level of TEI make decisions with higher quality in comparison to individuals with lower TEI levels (Vaughan et al., S.229). Moreover, athletes with higher TEI are more proficient at regulating emotion and achieving optimal mood state associated with improved performance (Vaughan et al., S.229). In another study by Rulence-Pàques et al (2005), which included two investigations, it was determined whether simple algebraic rules in operative general behavior are also detectable in decisions of action in sport (Rulence-Pàques et al (2005, p.387). The theoretical framework here was the Functional Theory of Cognition by Anderson (1996). In the domain of sport and exercise (team as well as individual, expertise has largely been explained by superiority in perceptual and cognitive processes related to the specific-knowledge bases available. Helsen & Starkes (1999) examined in that specific field the relative importance in the determination of expertise in soccer. They found out that the only significant predictors of sport performance were the cognition domain-specific skill (as complex decision speed and accuracy, and number of visual fixations in solving game problems) (Rulence-Pàques et al. 2005, S. 388). 2000, McPherson showed that expert tennis players generated more varied and more sophisticated goals and actions than novices. Experts planned for actions based on elaborate goals that are specific to the sport situation (Rulence- Pàques et al. 2005, S.388). During a match, athletes must process more or less at the same time many kinds of information’s, for example the opponent`s position and many other cues (for example emotions like stress or fear) (Rulence-Pàques et al. 2005, S.389).

Über den Autor

Marius Schröder, geb. 1985 in Göppingen, arbeitet seit 2013 im Sportbereich in diversen Bereichen und Schwerpunkten. Er ist Bundestrainer des Gehörlosentennis, Athletiktrainer und bildet sich als DOSB A-Trainer Tennis weiter. Nach dem Studium der Rechtswissenschaften in Bayreuth studierte der Autor Sports Psychology and Coaching an der MET London (B.Sc. (HONS)) und Sport & Exercise Science - Sport Psychology (M.Sc.) i.A..

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