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Produktart: Buch
Verlag: Diplomica Verlag
Erscheinungsdatum: 05.2019
AuflagenNr.: 1
Seiten: 116
Abb.: 15
Sprache: Englisch
Einband: Paperback

Inhalt

Because of the high number of involuntary migrants who arrived in Germany over the past years, displaced people may at least partly counteract the economic consequences of the demographic change in Germany. Yet, particularly displaced women are comparatively seldom employed in Germany. The purpose of this thesis therefore is to identify factors that impede the inclusion of displaced women into the German labour market and examine their respective importance. The employment of these women has, amongst others, positive effects on their social integration, the federal budget and the German economy. In this thesis, a theoretical analysis of relevant literature concerning the topics migration, gender equality, employment and impediments for labour market integration of displaced women is given. Afterwards, two surveys are presented. The first survey is a quantitative one analysing the data of 42 displaced women. The second one is qualitative, gathering information from five experts. The results provide a basis for the creation or alteration of support offers that facilitate labour market participation for displaced women.

Leseprobe

Text Sample: Chapter 2.3 Historical review of migration in Germany: As the presented theories show, research on migration has already been conducted for a long time. It is important to know that both voluntary and involuntary migration is not a new topic. It occurred any time in history and everywhere around the world. Even though German authorities have denied the fact for a long time, Germany2 has been an immigration country since many decades or even centuries. That means that more people immigrate than emigrate (cf. Grünheid, Sulak 2016, p. 8). The following text will focus on relatively current migration in Germany from the 1880s until now. As a result of industrialisation and increased emigration of Germans towards America the demand for foreign workers had been growing from the 1880s on. Only during the Weimar Republic the number of foreign workers decreased while forced migration became of greater importance. More than 10 million Europeans left their home area as a consequence of territorial provisions determined by the Treaty of Versailles. The biggest migratory movement of the 20th century, however, occurred between 1933 and 1945 where especially flight, displacement and deportation. During the time of the Germany division, this term refers to Western Germany only in the following text into forced labour marked the movements. Germany functioned as the centre of and motor for this involuntary migration that occurred mainly within Europe. After 1945, the war left 22 to 24 million displaced persons, including forced labourers and former concentration camp prisoners looking for a new home or trying to repatriate (cf. Bade, Oltmer 2005, n. p.). This part of German history is important to explain subsequent political decisions. As an answer to the (non-)acceptance of involuntary German emigrants by other countries during wartimes, the German government created article 16 of the constitution: »Politisch Verfolgte genießen Asylrecht«. This article became the globally most open right for asylum. However, with an increasing use of this right, German authorities introduced restrictions. Firstly, these restrictions were solely applied in practice. Later the constitution itself was changed. This development will be explained after having presented the history of guest workers in Germany that provides relevant background information concerning this issue. Germany started recruiting guest workers after World War II, to offset the missing labourers. Most guest workers were from Southern Europe, Turkey, Tunisia and Morocco and mainly executed hard physical work for low salaries. The plan was that they would come at an age at which they finished education and leave before retirement, so that they would pay into the social security system, but would not get anything from it. For the sending countries this was a way to reduce unemployment and boost the local economy with the salary the guest workers sent to their families at home. Therefore, the German social security system profited as well as the sending countries, generating a win-win situation. A rotation of the guest workers was planned, meaning the old ones would leave after a few years and be replaced by new ones. Hence, Germany put no efforts into integration. The guest workers came alone, were accommodated with other guest workers and had little contact with Germans. Yet, the plan did not succeed. In 1973, a recruitment ban was established. By then, 14 million guest workers had come to Germany and 11 million had left. The remaining 3 million stayed in the country and many of their families joined them (cf. Herbert 2001, 224-257). Involuntary migration from Eastern Europe affected Germany at the same time. During Cold War displaced people were welcomed with pleasure since they were a proof that living in the Western systems was better than in the Eastern ones. Yet, with the recruitment stop of guest workers in 1973, the number of asylum seekers increased rapidly. After the Cold War had ended, displaced people from Eastern Europe were not needed as a proof that living conditions in the West were better. Instead, they posed a supplementary burden for the welfare state. In 1980, most displaced people came from third world countries. Even though most were not allowed to work, this development increased social fears evolving from growing unemployment. Racism and the fight against economic refugees’ intensified. For authorities, ‘political persecution’ referred to reasons for persecution rather than reasons for flight. For example, if torture was a common penalty or interrogative instrument in the home country of an asylum seeker, it did not count as ‘political’ persecution and asylum was not granted. Additionally, entries into Germany were blocked and visa requirements became restrictive in order to minimise involuntary migrant flows. These developments were not effective since human traffickers and ‘bogus asylum seekers’, seeking asylum in order to get access to the black market, were rarely affected. On July 1, 1993, a change in the constitution regulated that asylum is not granted for displaced persons from countries regarded as free from persecution. The same regulation applies to those who arrive in Germany after passing ‘safe third countries’ by which Germany is surrounded completely. Therefore, Germany cannot be reached legally by land. Due to the costs travelling by air has a social selection function. A consequence is that now many displaced people conceal their identity, origin and route of travel. Human traffickers and organised crime are supported by this development. Furthermore, many involuntary migrants do not apply for asylum (cf. Bade, Oltmer 2005, n. p.). However, in terms of application numbers the change had the desired effect. From 1993 until 2008, application numbers have nearly continuously been falling from about 438,000 to 28,000 initial and subsequent applications. The possibility to make a subsequent application if the asylum applicant has been rejected asylum in the initial procedure exists since 1995. In 2016, the number of initial and subsequent applications for asylum was nearly 27 times higher than just eight years earlier. Most displaced persons came from Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq. The current flow of involuntary migration has a range of reasons. Most people flee as a consequence of war, religious and political persecution as well as a lack of perspectives. In the current main countries of origin, more and more people realise that conflicts will not end in the foreseeable future and, with the loss of hope, decide to flee. Most are acute refugees. Because many neighbouring countries do not have the capacity or willingness to receive the masses of displaced persons, many who fled to such a country fear deportation back to their home area. They therefore continue their flight to another country. Human traffickers profit from smuggling and therefore support involuntary migrant movements. Last, but not least some European countries, especially the Balkans, widely ignore the third-country regulation since they cannot afford caring for the great number of displaced people. Therefore, they let those people leave the country. The destination of many is Germany because of the country’s political and economic stability, the favourable labour market and, in comparison to for example Scandinavia, a relative closeness to many countries of origin (cf. Middelhoff 2015, pp. 1–3). Taking into account both voluntary and involuntary migration, from 1950 until 2014, 44 million people immigrated to Germany while 32 million Germans and non-Germans emigrated. About 12 million immigrants stayed in the country (cf. Özoguz 2016, p. 14). Nowadays, nearly one out of five people has a migrant background. Having a migrant background means that the person itself or one of that person’s parents is a foreigner or a naturalised German (cf. Bundesministerium für Familien, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend 2017, p. 4). There are significant contrasts between different age groups. 35% of all children younger than ten have a migrant background while out of those between 20 and 45 it is only a quarter (cf. Autorengruppe Bildungsberichterstattung 2016, pp. 161-166).

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